Water is a crucial resource for all life on Earth. It is essential for everything from agriculture to industrial processes to daily human consumption. However, the quality of our water is increasingly threatened by pollution causing water to pollute either marine or freshwater. Water pollution occurs when harmful substances such as chemical trash, micro bacteria, parasites, and other toxic metallic products are mixed into water bodies, such as rivers, lakes, and oceans, and contaminate them. This results in the destruction of aquatic ecosystems as well as human health.
There are numerous sources of water pollution, both natural and human-made. Natural sources include soil erosion, volcanic activity, and animal waste. Human-made sources include industrial waste, sewage, agricultural chemicals, and oil spills. There are many different sources and causes of water pollution which are due to direct discharge of water from drainage, mining inside the deep sea, surface runoff (urban runoff), throwing of trash, garbage toxic chemical compounds, etc. Some other causes of water pollution are Global warming, deforestation, industry, agriculture and livestock farming rubbish and fecal water dumping, maritime traffic, fuel spillages from ships, etc.
Water pollution can have significant impacts on the environment and human health. It causes destruction in biodiversity. Algae can develop too quickly when there are too many nutrients in the water, which can happen from things like fertilizer runoff. Water pollution causes eutrophication: which occurs due to the growth of phytoplankton in lakes, which contaminates the food chain and causes less potable water as well as the depletion of aquatic habitats. It also brings negative impacts on human health. Poor drinking water quality contributes to the development of more than 50 different diseases, and it is the cause of 80% of illnesses and 50% of infant mortality worldwide. Yet diarrhea, skin conditions, malnutrition, even cancer, and other disorders linked to water contamination are all brought on by pollution.
It’s necessary to take proactive steps and implement measures to mitigate water pollution from increasing. To prevent water pollution, it’s crucial to dispose of household and industrial wastes properly, which involves safely and correctly disposing of hazardous chemicals and materials in accordance with regulations established by local authorities. Controlling the use of pesticides to avoid seepage into nearby water bodies, using organic compounds, and reducing the amount of chemical pesticides and insecticides such as DDT can help to reduce pollution. Along with it, governments and authorities have a role to play in preventing water pollution by enacting and enforcing regulations like effluent standards to reduce pollution from industries and other sources. Reducing the amount of wastewater generation by repairing leaks, utilizing water efficient appliances, and taking shorter showers are also possible steps to reduce water pollution.
Thus, water pollution poses a significant threat to the environment and human well-being. Combating this problem necessitates collective action from individuals, communities, and governments. By taking proactive measures to minimize pollution and advocating for environmental regulations, we can safeguard our water resources and preserve them for the benefit of future generations.